Food Safety 101

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As more produce buyers require food safety assurances, many growers are documenting their food safety practices and considering whether certification is a good fit for them. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is a voluntary set of food-safety guidelines designed to help produce growers improve food safety on the farm. Successful completion of a WSDA GAP audit will earn the farm a USDA GAP certification. Learn about Bridging the GAPs, a new project of WSDA to work with auditors and growers to identify best practices for food safety efforts on small and diversified farms. Join Cedarville Farm, and a group of farmers, food buyers and GAP Auditors from WSDA, as they discuss good agricultural practices for small and diversified farms, and why food safety planning matters to them. (Source: Washington State Department of Agriculture)


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Vashon Island Growers Association: Farm Food Safety 101

Workshop Report 2012

On Saturday, March 17, the Vashon Island Growers Association (VIGA) hosted the second in a series of workshops on farm food safety. This year’s workshop, which built upon an initial session held a year ago for farmers interested in marketing to the Vashon Island School District, was designed as a general introduction for all Island food producers.

VIGA’s Food Safety 101 Workshop was planned and facilitated by Mark Musick, with assistance from Terry Mendenhall, Merrilee Runyan, John Runyan, Nan Wilson, Joanne Jewell, Jeanne Reynen, Beth Tuttle, Karen Biondo, and Jasper Forrester.

A total of 20 people attended the workshop, including fourteen farmers, two farm interns, two people interested in community gardens, Bernie O’Malley of East-West Produce, and Rebecca Wittman, new manager of the Vashon Farmers Market.

Each participant was provided with a revised, updated copy of VIGA’s Farm Food Safety Workbook. In preparation for this year’s program, the workbook was thoroughly revised, with a new introduction, expanded information on managing risks from livestock and wildlife, and detailed information about a new, online food safety planning tool from

Merrilee introduced the workshop with a review of VIGA’s efforts to enhance the food culture on Vashon Island and expand the market for locally grown produce. She said this was the first in a year-long series of events that will include three food safety-oriented farm walks and a fall meeting for farmers to share their experience with addressing food safety issues.

Mark said the goals for the workshop were to provide a basic introduction to food safety planning and empower growers to respond to customer questions about their farming practices. He talked about the 3,000 year history of food production on Vashon Island and the central role of food safety in securing the future for our food supply.

In his keynote address to last fall’s Focus on Farming Conference, Seattle attorney Bill Marler encouraged farmers to adopt a “culture of food safety.” Bacteria and viruses, he said, are getting “bigger, stronger, and faster,” and he reviewed the increase in foodborne diseases than now cause 48 million cases of food poisoning, 125,000 hospitalizations, and up to 3,000 deaths each year.

The most common pathogens associated with foodborne outbreaks in produce are E. coli O157:H7, norovirus and salmonella, and the items linked with the most disease outbreaks are lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, sprouts, green onions, melons, and leeks.

Mark added that local farmers are not just confronted with increased incidents of contaminated produce. They are also coping with serious plant and animal diseases, new insects, and climate change, all of which will make it harder to make a living growing food.

Mark quoted Stewart Brand’s statement, “We are as gods and might as well get good at it,” and added, “We are food professionals and better get good at it if we want to sustain ourselves.” He then introduced the core food-safety issues outlined in the workshop manual: Clean Soil, Clean Water, Clean Hands, Clean Surfaces, and Good Record Keeping.

Jasper Forrester came for the last hour of the workshop to talk about her experience developing a farm food safety plan for GreenMan Farm, which is included in the farm food safety workbook. She passed around a copy of her farm map and then went into detail about the standard operating practices she developed for every aspect of her operation.

She said her farm map is an invaluable planning tool for tracking crop rotations, and she recommended growers consider using the online garden planner from Territorial Seed Company:

Regarding soil testing, Jasper said you can get free tests from the King Conservation Service For a more in-depth analysis, she relies on soil tests from Peaceful Valley Farm Supply:

Jasper provided other practical tips, including a recommendation for a food grade sanitizer called “Star San” from Five Star Chemical Company:

Jasper said that everything she grows is sold directly to people on the Island, so she has a close, personal relationship with her customers. She added that to her providing safe food is not just an agreement, it’s a covenant. She is serving a higher cause, Jasper said, and in that context farm food safety requirements are not burdensome.

The Food Safety 101 workshop was intended as a brief introduction to the broad topic of farm food safety. Below are a few questions that came up during the session that would be good to answer in future trainings:

How common is pathogen contamination in livestock and wildlife?
How should we protect children from germs carried by livestock?
Are there organic sanitizers for cleaning hands, surfaces and fresh produce?
What are the best water testing labs?
In his introduction, Mark Musick noted that one of challenges small farmers face in relating to the USDA’s food safety programs is that much of the language is foreign to them. Below is a list of food safety terms discussed in the workshop:

Measures taken to keep diseases out of populations, herds, or groups of animals where they do not currently exist or to limit the spread of disease within the herd. A successful bio-security plan must address isolation of new animals brought to the farm, isolation of sick animals, regulation of the movement of people, animals, and equipment, and procedures for cleaning and disinfecting facilities.

An integrated approach to conserving wildlife and other natural resources while simultaneously minimizing microbiological hazards to food crops.

The transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another. Harmful bacteria can not only be transferred from food to food, but also from hands to food.

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)
Guidelines for vegetable growers and handlers to minimize the risk of pathogens getting to consumers via produce or other raw materials. GAPs recommend we be aware of potential contaminations (microbial, chemical and physical hazards) and manage operations as to minimize potential risks.

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)
Food safety principles used in processing facilities with a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.

Hemolytic uremic Syndrome (HUS)
A severe, life-threatening disease caused by E. coli O157 characterized by red blood-cell destruction, kidney failure, and neurological complications, such as seizures and strokes. Most HUS cases are children under 5 years old, although the feeble elderly may also be at risk.

Keystone Habit
A pattern that has the power to start a chain reaction, changing other habits as it moves through an organization. Charles Duhigg, “The Power of Habit.”

Potable Water
Clean water that is safe to drink.

Risk Assessment
Identify potential threats to food, animals or humans.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Detailed, written action plans with specific instructions on how to monitor and document a GAPs food safety program. SOPs include directions, which documentation and checklists to use, personnel training, and what materials need to be posted.